When reduction and oxidation take place simultaneously it is called redox reaction. It involves a number of enzymes and cofactors. The prime example of redox reaction occurring near us is digestion. It involves all the prime enzymes and provides the body with energy and nutrient. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a cofactor involved in redox reactions. It has great importance as it is used to speed up the redox reactions by combining with the specific enzyme. Mitochondria are the chief organelle. It is the powerhouse of the cell. Due to this factor, PQQ and mitochondria are correlated.


Pyrroloquinoline quinone is formed by the ribosomal machinery as a result of translation of precursor peptide. The small molecule in its structure has the ability to act as a redox agent. This makes it important for the reactions.

Role in bacteria

PQQ has a role in bacteria but there is no evidence of such role in humans. That is why it has a controversy to used as a vitamin. Studies have shown that PQQ increases the mitochondria eventually increasing the power of the body. This feature can be used for the benefit of humans and in treating different diseases. There is still a debate on using PQQ as a supplement.

Mitochondria enhancer

It has been shown that PQQ protects the body from mitochondrial aging. This seems to have very healthy effects. It improves the energy consumption of the body. PQQ does this with the help of binding element leading to activation of signaling pathways. Only an addition of micrograms of PQQ to the daily diet can enhance the mitochondrial functioning. The experiments are done on mice hepatocytes which showed positive results. Thus, it is formulated that PQQ has a role in the biogenesis of mitochondria. 

Functioning-mechanism of action

PQQ binds to quinoproteins and enhances their activity. It has proved to be an effective anti-oxidant. It also inhibits Thioredoxin reductase.

Other functions

PQQ is now being considered as a new superstar. AS it enhances the function and amount of the batteries of the body, its intake has profound effects on the health of a human body. There are many other associated functions that lead to homeostasis. It decreases the number of free radicles in the body. Moreover, it decreases inflammation. This is very important for the proper functioning of the gut. It increases the cognitive function. This also increases the life of organs. Keeps them healthy and working properly. All this together work as an anti-aging process. That is why it effective against Alzheimer’s and Parkinsonism.


A consumption of 0.3 mg/kg is safe. If high IV dose is taken it can serious effects which can be fatal.

Food containing PQQ

Following intakes are important to maintain PQQ levels in your body:

  1. Spinach
  2. Mustard
  3. Green peppers
  4. KIWI fruits
  5. Parsley


PQQ is a cofactor that binds to enzymes and maintains their working. They are involved in both activating and inhibiting the enzymes. They are formed by the ribosomal factory. Foods rich in PQQ are spinach and mustard especially. There is still a debate in using it as a supplement. But it has proved to be a mitochondrial enhancer. Eventually, it stabilizes the energy consumption of the body. It also acts as an anti-oxidizing and anti-aging agent. All this makes its useful part of the redox reactions of the body.