Lipopolysaccharides are present in large amount in the intestinal loop. This is the area where the bacteria reside. LPS have a clinical role in the gut due to their inflammatory characteristics. The gut is prone to infections and inflammation. So, LPS have a part in these activities. The normal range of LPs is 0.2ng/ml. When there is inflammation the levels are increased drastically. A fine maintenance of LPS levels in the body is necessary. Eradicating floatingLPS from the gut have therapeutic effects on diseases like Crohn’s disease. It is also an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. That is why it is present in large amounts in the gut along with bacterial flora.
Role in inflammatory diseases
The intestinal cells form a tight barrier, especially at the apices. They keep the inner luminal environment pure of the outer environment. These tight junctions do not allow any irrelevant molecule to enter the luminal side. LPS are present in abundance but they never cross the tight junctions. When a person suffers from diseases like Crohn’s disease, there is a defect in the transport. The tight junctions do not remain functional. They become loose and allow the LPS and other molecules to enter the lumen. These molecules and organisms enter and cause infection. A person suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has raised levels of LPS. The level rises up to 1-2 ng/ml. This is the primary indication of IBD or Crohn’s disease. The levels of LPS are lowered in order to treat these diseases.
Component of the bacterial wall- Providing immunity
LPS molecules are an integral part of the bacterial cell wall. They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. As they are the structural basis of bacteria they provide the innate immunity to the eukaryotes, especially humans in which they are residing. That is why it is significant to have a balanced level of LPS in the intestine.
How to improve LPS levels?
There are two prominent ways to improve LPS levels in intestine
- By taking natural diet
- By taking supplements
Diet containing lipopolysaccharide
Following eatables have good amounts of LPS
There are differently flavored packings available in markets which provide the equivalent protein value of LPS. If you are unable to take them in daily meals you can add to these supplements.
Effects of high levels of LPS
Following diseases and difficulties can occur when the levels of LPS are raised:
- Obesity: This can lead to insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases.
- Arteriosclerosis: This can cause ischemia and stroke.
- IBD and Crohn’s disease: This can cause malabsorption and diarrhea. If untreated this can be fatal.
- Necrosis: This can result in cellular damage and can cause polyps.
Overall, LPS have both beneficial as well as harmful effects. Its levels are to be maintained in the body. If they exceed or retreat it can cause problems. As they are an integral part of the cell membrane in bacteria, their adequate supply is necessary. Their increased levels are seen in inflammatory activities. Drugs are also given to remove LPS from the blood. This is helpful in the treatment of IBD especially. That is why normal levels should be maintained. This can be done by taking diet or equivalent supplements. LPS levels should be checked in routine checkups.